Treatment

Exposing infected amphibians to temperatures of 25°C for a 10-day period will result in the death of Bsal and the healing of associated lesions as the pathogen’s optimal temperature range is between 10°-15°C. This is of course taking into consideration the clinical stage of the disease and the amphibians’  thermal tolerance. (Martel et al., 2013; Blooi et at., 2015)

Blooi et al. 2015 also described a treatment protocol of a combination of Voriconazole  12.5 µg/ml, Polymyxin E 2000 IU/ml and temperature of 20°C  which cleared the infection in infected salamanders in 10 days.

There is currently no record in the literature of any vaccines developed as prophylaxis against Bsal. According to Garner et al. (2016), the development of an efficacious vaccine would be labour-intensive and extremely expensive.  Recent information from Stegen et al. (2017) described a lack of protective immune response in salamanders and that, even after repeated infection, their resistance to Bsaldid not increase. This finding has negative implications for vaccination and development of immunity in infected populations as  possible mitigation measures.  However, Bsal research is still considered to be in it’s infancy. There remains much more to be elucidated  on the immunogenetics of susceptible host species and the biology and ecology of the pathogen itself which will determine the feasibility of imminent efficacious prevention strategies.